Cosmopolitanism and person
Perhaps an intermediate position here is the Kantian view that it is morally necessary to establish just democratic states and that just democratic states need some special commitment on the part of their citizens in order to function as democracies, a special commitment that goes beyond mere cooperative obedience but that can still be defended in universalist cosmopolitan terms.
At the same time, however, Marx and Engels also hold that the proletariat in every country shares essential features and has common interests, and the Communist movement aims to convince proletarians everywhere of these common interests. Intellectual communities, in both the humanities and the sciences, collaborate and compete along disciplinary lines rather than national borders.
Waldron, M. These scholars argue that a truly cosmopolitan identity of Global Citizen will take hold, diminishing the importance of national identities.
Furthermore, there has been a good deal of debate over cultural cosmopolitanism.
Against mercantilism, he argued that it is more advantageous for everyone involved if a nation imports those goods which are more expensive to produce domestically, and that the abolition of protectionism would benefit everyone. Because actual agreements to prioritize fellow-citizens as beneficiaries are difficult to find, the contractarians generally rely upon an implicit agreement that expresses the interests or values of the fellow-citizens themselves. At times, people may adapt a cosmopolitan way of life out of necessity as opposed to ideological conviction. Oxford: Blackwell. But in no case, the Stoics insist, is consideration of political engagement to be limited to one's own polis. At the same time, however, Marx and Engels also hold that the proletariat in every country shares essential features and has common interests, and the Communist movement aims to convince proletarians everywhere of these common interests. The evidence does not permit a decisive attribution of one or the other of these interpretations to any of the earliest Stoics. Even if one does not think that these first two problems are so serious as to make economic cosmopolitanism unviable, they can still make it seem undesirable in the eyes of those who are concerned with poverty and environmental destruction. To respond to this sort of argument, the cosmopolitan has two routes open.
KAA: Yes. European Jews were frequently accused of being "rootless cosmopolitans. Most other political cosmopolitans did not go as far as Cloots.
Cosmopolitanism and globalization
Intellectuals, diplomats, creative artists, the wealthy, and merchants each to a certain extent maintain a lifestyle that might be described as cosmopolitan. MJ: But, again, from the cosmopolitan point of view some things are not negotiable. In particular, they are criticized for neglecting or downplaying issues such as a the vast inequality of wealth and extreme poverty without there being any reliable mechanism to provide relief, if they reduce the role of political institutions b the presupposition of large-scale migration or re-schooling when jobs disappear in one area the loss of ties to friends and family, language, culture, etc. The best strictly cosmopolitan response to this argument will insist on a distinction between the state and fellow-citizens and will question exactly who provides which benefits and what is owed in return. Certainly since the time of the Enlightenment, academia has extended beyond local influence. But the cosmopolitan's wariness towards very strong rights to culture and towards national self-determination need not be grounded in a wholesale skepticism about the importance of particular cultural attachments. Prominent philosophical discussions of international political arrangements have recently clustered around the heirs of Kant e. In addition to moral and political forms of cosmopolitanism, there emerged an economic form of cosmopolitan theory.
Critics of the economic cosmopolitan ideal have also started to emphasize another way in which capitalism bears the seeds of its own destruction within itself, namely, insofar as it is said to lead to a global environmental disaster that might spell the end of the human species, or in any event the end of capitalism as we know it.
Nussbaum, Martha C. Marx and later Marxists have argued that capitalism is self-destructive in the long run, because the exploitation, alienation, and poverty that it inflicts on the proletariat will provoke a world-wide revolution that will bring about the end of capitalism.
Pufendorf, Samuel, De iure naturae et gentium libri octo, W.
Their common laws, however, are the laws of morality, grounded in reason.
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