Antioxidant enzyme assay protocol

Loggini, B. Allen, R.

Peroxidase assay protocol in plants

CrossRef Google Scholar 9. Thus, antioxidant proteins with similar enzymatic activity may have different effects after modulation due to different localizations within cells. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase play a vital role in combating oxidative stress. Although ROS are generated during normal aerobic metabolism, the biological effects of ROS on these intracellular targets are dependent on their concentration and increased levels of these species are present during oxidative stress. Enzymes play an important role in lowering the ROS levels and helping avoid oxidative stress. Smith, I. To avoid damage caused by these excess ROS, plants have developed elaborate mechanisms to manage them at sustainable levels. References 1. Adverse environmental factors like drought stress result in increased levels of ROS that are detrimental to the plant 1, 2. Other techniques including immunohistochemistry and immunogold can further evaluate the levels of the various antioxidant enzymes in tissue and cells. Giannopolitis, C. The SODs convert superoxide radical into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen, while the catalase and peroxidases convert hydrogen peroxide into water. In this chapter we provide details of the assays we used to determine the enzyme activities spectrophotometrically. Plant Sci , — Western blots, activity gels and activity assays are various methods used to determine protein and activity in both cells and tissue depending on the amount of protein needed for each assay.

The net result is that two potentially harmful species, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, are converted to water.

Wang, F.

Antioxidant enzyme activity in plants

PubMed Google Scholar 8. Adverse environmental factors like drought stress result in increased levels of ROS that are detrimental to the plant 1, 2. There are three SOD enzymes that are highly compartmentalized. Cells contain a large number of antioxidants to prevent or repair the damage caused by ROS, as well as to regulate redox-sensitive signaling pathways. Antioxidant enzyme responses to moderate water-deficit stress were studied. Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. References 1. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase play a vital role in combating oxidative stress. CrossRef Google Scholar 5. Asada, K. In this way, two toxic species, superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, are converted to the harmless product water. However, increased levels can also result in ROS-induced damage including cell death, mutations, chromosomal aberrations, and carcinogenesis 1. Meth Enzymol,—

Antioxidant enzyme responses to moderate water-deficit stress were studied. Other compartmentalized antioxidant enzymes include catalase, which is found in peroxisomes and cytoplasm, and GPx, which can be found in many sub-cellular compartments including the mitochondria and nucleus depending on the family member.

Other techniques including immunohistochemistry and immunogold can further evaluate the levels of the various antioxidant enzymes in tissue and cells.

Antioxidant enzyme assay protocol

Thus, the many forms of each of these enzymes reduces oxidative stress in the various parts of the cell. Kalpalatha Melmaiee and Shraddha Vadvalkar for valuable suggestions and help in the critical review of the chapter. Yoshimura, K. Khanna-Chopra, R. Occurrence in higher plants. Learn more Notes Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Dr. Allen, R. PubMed Google Scholar 8. Anal Biochem , — There are three SOD enzymes that are highly compartmentalized.

They include, but are not limited to, species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide which react with various intracellular targets, including lipids, proteins, and DNA 1.

Three of the primary antioxidant enzymes contained in mammalian cells that are thought to be necessary for life in all oxygen metabolizing cells 6 are superoxide dismutase SODcatalase, and a substrate specific peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase GPx Fig.

Kalpalatha Melmaiee and Shraddha Vadvalkar for valuable suggestions and help in the critical review of the chapter.

sod activity assay

J Plant Physiol 62, Plant Physiol 59, —

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Antioxidant Enzyme Activity Assays